Buy-o-logy of Indians: A Cultural Model of Studying Consumer Behaviour
Every product is a cultural product and every buying is a cultural buying and therefore it is a cultural relationship between the consumer and the product. A consumer views the product from a worldview born out of different cultural practices that give birth to habits. The consumer uses a particular language to explain his/her worldview. In the process of relationship between the product and consumer, the consumer gives meaning to the product that he/she buys. Once the product is bought and consumed, the meaning he/she had given provides now a sense of fulfilment, a meaning to the consumer’s life that we call it cognitive resonance. If the product does not give the sense of satisfaction, it will cause a cognitive dissonance that makes the consumer dispose the product. Hence when we study the consumer behaviour, we need to focus on (1)the worldview that is born out of (2)culture, and expressed in (3)a language and the (4)relationship the consumer has with the product in the process of buying. In the entire process, the cultural worldview gives the consumer an agency, what we call human agency, to decide when, where why and what to buy. This paper suggests a way to study consumer behaviour from a cultural perspective.
2. Abroun, N., Cherrier, H., Chung-Moya, E., & Rahman, K. (2019). Consumer Behavior in the Context of Life-Threatening Illness. AMA Winter Educators’ Conference Proceedings, 30, CC-13-CC-15.
3. Aggarwal, P. (2004). The effects of brand relationship norms on consumer attitudes and behavior. Journal of consumer research, 31(1), 87-101.
4. Ahn, J., & La Ferle, C. (2008). Enhancing Recall and Recognition for Brand Names and Body Copy. Journal of Advertising, 37(3), 107–117. https://doi.org/10.2753/JOA0091-3367370308
5. Andreasen, A. R. (1965). Attitudes and Consumer Behavior: A Decision Model in New Research in Marketing. Institute of Business and Economic Research. University of California, Berkeley, 1-16.
6. Archer, M. S., & Archer, M. S. (1996). Culture and agency: The place of culture in social theory. Cambridge University Press.
7. Arndt, J., Solomon, S., Kasser, T., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). The urge to splurge: A terror management account of materialism and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(3), 198-212.
8. Australian business. (n.d.). Indian Consumer market. http://www.australianbusiness.com.au/international-trade/export-markets/india/indian-consumer-market
9. Bakator, M., Đorđević, D., Ćoćkalo, D., & Bogetić, S. (2020). The Impact of Consumer-Company Relationships on Brand Loyalty. Management: Journal of Sustainable Business and Management Solutions in Emerging Economies, 25(2), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.7595/management.fon.2019.0016
10. Belch, G. E. (1978). Belief systems and the differential role of the self-concept. ACR North American Advances, 5,320-325.
11. Bettman, J.R. (1979) An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
12. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
13. Burnett, L. (2018). Amazon Prime: India ka Naya Primetime (India’s new Primetime). The Drum. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://www.thedrum.com/creative-works/project/leo-burnett-amazon-prime-india-ka-naya-primetime-indias-new-primetime
14. Chakrabarti, K. K. (1999). Classical Indian philosophy of mind: The Nyaya dualist tradition. SUNY Press.
15. Chang, P. L., & Chieng, M. H. (2006). Building consumer–brand relationship: A cross‐cultural experiential view. Psychology & Marketing, 23(11), 927-959.
16. Chatfield, C., & Goodhardt, G. (1975). Results concerning brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 12(1), 110-113.
17. Cheng, S. Y., White, T. B., & Chaplin, L. N. (2012). The effects of self-brand connections on responses to brand failure: A new look at the consumer–brand relationship. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(2), 280-288.
18. Chow, C. S. F., Tang, E. P. Y., & Fu, I. S. F. (2007). Global Marketers’ Dilemma: Whether to Translate the Brand Name into Local Language. Journal of Global Marketing, 20(4), 25–38 https://doi.org/10.1300/J042v20n04_03
19. Cnet (2004). For Dell, Indian call center failure a lesson, (Retrieved on 24 October, 2020) Retrieved from https://www.cnet.com/news/for-dell-indian-call-center-failure-a-lesson/
20. Crehan, K. (2002). Gramsci, culture and anthropology. University of California Press.
21. Dasgupta, S. (1975). A history of Indian philosophy (Vol. 2). Motilal Banarsidass Publication.
22. De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research findings. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3-4), 181-192.
23. Do, T. (2019). The impact of tagline on brand image: A consumer experiment with a handmade locally brand. Retrieved from https://helda.helsinki.fi/dhanken/bitstream/handle/10227/222485/Do_Thi.pdf?sequence=1
24. Eckhardt, G. M., & Mahi, H. (2012). Globalization, consumer tensions, and the shaping of consumer culture in India. Journal of Macromarketing, 32(3), 280-294.
25. Endress, P. (2018). Communicate Your Sales Message for Total Understanding. American Salesman, 63(6), 22–24.
26. Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. and Miniard, P.W. (1986) Consumer Behavior, Chicago, IL: The Dryden Press (fifth edition).
27. Enspireco (2017). “More Indian than you think” - How a German airline conquered the hearts of its Indian customers (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from http://enspireco.com/blog/2017/11/28/more-indian-thank-you-think-how-a-german-airline-conquered-the-hearts-of-its-indian-customers/
28. Frank, R. E. (1962). Brand choice as a probability process. The Journal of Business, 35(1), 43-56.
29. Fransen, M. L., Fennis, B. M., Pruyn, A. T. H., & Das, E. (2008). Rest in peace? Brand-induced mortality salience and consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61(10), 1053-1061.
30. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books
31. Godin, S. (2009). All marketers are liars: The underground classic that explains how marketing really works--and why authenticity is the best marketing of all. Penguin.
32. Gopal, A., & Srinivasan, R. (2006). The new Indian consumer. Harvard Business Review, 84(10), 22-23.
33. Gupta, A. (2010). Tupperware: Unique Business Strategy. IndianRetailer. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://www.indianretailer.com/interview/sector-watch/home/Tupperware-Unique-Business-Strategy.i136/
34. Gupta, V. (2018). Why marketers should focus on Indian language content for consumers. The Economic Times. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/marketing-branding/marketing/why-marketers-should-focus-on-indian-language-content-for-consumers/articleshow/66049831.cms?from=mdr
35. Gvili, Y., & Levy, S. (2019). Consumer engagement in sharing brand-related information on social commerce: the roles of culture and experience. Journal of Marketing Communications, 1-16.
36. Han, S. P., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of experimental social psychology, 30(4), 326-350.
37. Hayes, J. L., Britt, B. C., Applequist, J., Ramirez Jr, A., & Hill, J. (2020). Leveraging Textual Paralanguage and Consumer–Brand Relationships for More Relatable Online Brand Communication: A Social Presence Approach. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 20(1), 17-30.
38. Hennerberg, G. (2017). Aligning your sales story with customer worldview. Target Marketing. (Retrieved on 23 September, 2020) Retrieved from https://www.targetmarketingmag.com/post/aligning-your-sales-story-with-customer-worldview/#:~:text=Godin%20writes%20that%20%E2%80%9Cworldview%20is,It's%20what%20you%20believe.&text=It's%20what%20the%20consumer%20believes%20right%20now.%E2%80%9D
39. Hirschman, E. C. (1993). Ideology in Consumer Research, 1980 and 1990: A Marxist and Feminist Critique. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(4), 537–555. https://doi.org/10.1086/209321
40. Hofstede Insights. (n.d.) Hofstede Insights: Country Comparison. Retrieved from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/india/
41. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of mind. New York: McGraw Hill
42. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.
43. Hong, F. C., Pecotich, A., & Shultz, I. . C. J. (2002). Brand Name Translation: Language Constraints, Product Attributes, and Consumer Perceptions in East and Southeast Asia. Journal of International Marketing, 10(2), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1509/jimk.10.2.29.19534
44. Howard, J.A. and Sheth, J.N. (1969). The Theory of Buyer Behavior, New York: John Wiley.
45. Jones, J. M. (1970). A comparison of three models of brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 7(4), 466-473.
46. Jones, J. M., & Zufryden, F. S. (1980). Adding explanatory variables to a consumer purchase behavior model: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(3), 323-334.
47. Jung, J. & Sung, E. (2008). Consumer-based brand equity: Comparisons among American and South Korean in the USA and South Koreans in Korea. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 12(1), 24–35.
48. Kang, A. (2015). Brand love–moving beyond loyalty an empirical investigation of perceived brand love of Indian consumer. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 10(2), 90-101.
49. Khamitov, M., Wang, X., & Thomson, M. (2019). How well do consumer-brand relationships drive customer brand loyalty? Generalizations from a meta-analysis of brand relationship elasticities. Journal of Consumer Research, 46(3), 435-459.
50. Khare, A. (2014). Influence of cultural values on Indian consumers’ local store loyalty. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 26(4), 329-343.
51. Kim, H., & Markus, H. R. (1999). Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 77(4), 785-800.
52. Kman, V. S. Y., Li. Y.J., Mhite, A. E., and Jacobson, R. P. (2015). Cultural Worldview and Cognition. Handbook of Culture and Consumer Behavior, ed. Sharon Ng, and Angela Y. Lee. Oxford Scholarship Online, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388516.003.0002
53. Krishna, A., & Ahluwalia, R. (2008). Language choice in advertising to bilinguals: Asymmetric effects for multinationals versus local firms. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(4), 692-705.
54. Kronrod, A., Grinstein, A., & Wathieu, L. (2012). Enjoy! Hedonic consumption and compliance with assertive messages. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(1), 51-61.
55. Kumar (2015). How Ikea made Rs. 6, 00,00,000 on their first day of launch? Medium. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://firstname.lastname@example.org/marhow-ikea-made-rs-54fbc8ff9597
56. Kyzym, M. O., & Doronina, M. S. (2019). Worldview, Social Consolidation, Science: Dialectic Relationship. Problems of Economy, 4, 156–162. https://doi.org/10.32983/2222-0712-2019-4-156-162
57. Lehman, D. R., Chiu, C. Y., & Schaller, M. (2004). Psychology and culture. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 55, 689-714.
58. Lenoir, A.-S. I., & Puntoni, S. (2014). Fun with Words: How Language Affects Consumer Response to Brands and Marketing Communications. Advances in Consumer Research, 42, 136–140.
59. Lilien, G. L. (1974). A modified linear learning model of buyer behavior. Management Science, 20(7), 1027-1036.
60. Macdonell, D. (1986). Theories of Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell
61. Magee R. G. (2019). Environmental worldview beliefs and CSR advertising. Social Responsibility Journal, 15, 379-394.
62. Maheswaran, D., & Agrawal, N. (2004). Motivational and cultural variations in mortality salience effects: Contemplations on terror management theory and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(3), 213-218.
63. Mantonakis, A. (2012). A brief pause between a tagline and brand increases brand name recognition and preference. Applied cognitive psychology, 26(1), 61-69.
64. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98(2), 224-253.
65. Mathras, D., Cohen, A. B., Mandel, N., & Mick, D. G. (2016). The effects of religion on consumer behavior: A conceptual framework and research agenda. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 26(2), 298-311.
66. Mazzotta, M. J., & Kline, J. (1995). Environmental philosophy and the concept of nonuse value. Land economics, 71(2), 244-249.
67. Miller, S. (1990). Foucault on Discourse and Power. Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory, (76), 115-125. (Retrieved September 20, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41801502)
68. Montgomery, D. B. (1969). A stochastic response model with application to brand choice. Management Science, 15(7), 323-337.
69. Morais, R. J., & Lerman, D. (2019). The brand language brief: A pillar of sound brand strategy. Journal of Brand Strategy, 8(3), 265–281.
70. Nicosia, F.M. (1966). Consumer Decision Processes: Marketing and Advertising Implications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
71. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic vs. analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291–310.
72. Overby, J. W., Woodruff, R. B., & Gardial, S. F. (2005). The influence of culture upon consumers’ desired value perceptions: A research agenda. Marketing Theory, 5(2), 139-163.
73. Prabhakar, B. (2011). How KFC and McDonald’s plan to target each other in India. The Economic Times. (Retrieved on 22 September, 2020) Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/company/corporate-trends/how-kfc-mcdonalds-plan-to-target-each-other-in-india/articleshow/9761200.cms?from=mdr
74. Prasad, V. K. (1972, November). A brand choice model with store as an intervening variable. In paper presented at the ORSA/TIMS/AIEE Joint National Meeting.
75. Puntoni, S., De Langhe, B., & Van Osselaer, S. M. (2009). Bilingualism and the emotional intensity of advertising language. Journal of consumer research, 35(6), 1012-1025.
76. Ratner, C. (2000). Agency and culture. Journal for the theory of social behaviour, 30,413-434.
77. Salciuviene, L., Ghauri, P., Salomea Streder, R., & De Mattos, C. (2010). Do brand names in a foreign language lead to different brand perceptions? Journal of Marketing Management, 26(11–12), 1037–1056. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2010.508976
78. Schmitt, B. H., Pan, Y., & Tavassoli, N. T. (1994). Language and consumer memory: The impact of linguistic differences between Chinese and English. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3), 419-431.
79. Sela, A., Wheeler, S. C., & Sarial-Abi, G. (2012). We are not the same as you and I: Causal effects of minor language variations on consumers' attitudes toward brands. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(3), 644-661.
80. Shabalina, O. (2015). Part D: Consumer Behavior: Consumer Responses to Advertising and Brand Names: Perception Patterns of Bilingual Indian Students and Implications in Developing Ad Layouts. AMA Summer Educators’ Conference Proceedings, 26, D-56-D-57.
81. Shapiro, M. (ed.) (1984) Michel Foucault 'Order of Discourse', Language and Politics. Oxford: Blackwell.
82. Sharma, R. (2020). Building Consumer-based Brand Equity for Fast Fashion Apparel Brands in the Indian Consumer Market. Management and Labour Studies, 45(3), 337-365.
83. Shradha (2016). British Airways: Loving India back since 1924. Oneindia. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://www.oneindia.com/feature/british-airways-loving-india-back-since-1924-2043025.html
84. Shukla, P., & Purani, K. (2012). Comparing the importance of luxury value perceptions in cross-national contexts. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1417-1424.
85. Smith, S. (2010). Why Steve Jobs doesn’t listen to customers. CustomerThink. (Retrieved on October 9, 2020) Retrieved from https://customerthink.com/why_steve_jobs_doesnt_listen_to_customers/
86. Sundar, A., & Cao, E. S. (2020). Punishing Politeness: The Role of Language in Promoting Brand Trust. Journal of Business Ethics, 164(1), 39–60 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-4060-6
87. Swaminathan, V., Page, K., Gürhan‐Canli, Z. (2007). “My” Brand or “Our” Brand: The Effects of Brand Relationship Dimensions and Self‐Construal on Brand Evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(2), 248-259. doi:10.1086/518539
88. Taneja, G., Girdhar, R., & Gupta, N. (2012). Marketing of Global Brands in Indian Markets. International Refereed Research Journal, 3(3), 71-78.
89. Van Egmond, N. D., & De Vries, H. J. M. (2011). Sustainability: The search for the integral worldview. Futures, 43(8), 853-867.
90. Venkatesh, A. (1994). India's changing consumer economy: A cultural perspective. ACR North American Advances, eds. Chris T. Allen and Deborah Roedder John, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, 21, 323-328.
91. Wenben Lai, A. (1995) ,"Consumer Values, Product Benefits and Customer Value: a Consumption Behavior Approach", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 22, eds. Frank R. Kardes and Mita Sujan, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 381-388.
92. Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2002). Testing cross-cultural invariance of the brand equity creation Process. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11(6), 380–398.
93. Zhang, S., & Schmitt, B. H. (2004). Activating sound and meaning: The role of language proficiency in bilingual consumer environments. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 220-228.
94. Zufryden, F. S. (1973). Media scheduling: a stochastic dynamic model approach. Management Science, 19(12), 1395-1406.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.